|Title||Installation and use of ballast water treatment systems – Implications for compliance and enforcement|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||WA Gerhard, K Lundgreen, G Drillet, R Baumler, H Holbech, and CK Gunsch|
|Journal||Ocean & Coastal Management|
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The International Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention entered into force in September 2017. In the convention, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) required two options: ballast water exchange (BWE) standard D-1, and ballast water performance standard D-2 which required ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs). We explored the impact of policy on the utilization of BWTSs by examining IMO Type Approval records and country-level databases in the United States and Australia. In December 2018, 65 BWTSs had IMO Type Approval and 13 had US Coast Guard approval. The majority of vessels with BWTSs had either electrolytic or UV treatment systems (Australia, 84%; USA, 89%). From 2016 to 2017, both countries experienced an increase in the percentage of vessels with BWTS, vessels utilizing BWTS, and total ballast discharge treated with BWTS. Based on this analysis, shipowners appear to primarily rely on two treatment technologies in Australia and the United States to meet compliance.
|Short Title||Ocean & Coastal Management|